14 Psychology


14.1 Prediction and Control

14.2 Classical Conditioning

Pavlov’s dog

unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned responses

conditioned stimulus, conditioned responses

Delay Conditioning

Trace Conditioning

14.2.1 Blocking and Higher-order Conditioning

14.2.2 The Rescorla-Wagner Model

The core idea of the Rescorla-Wagner model is that an animal only learns when events violate its expectations, in other words, only when the animal is surprised.

14.2.3 The TD Model

14.2.4 TD Model Simulations

14.3 Instrumental Conditioning

Thorndike’s cat

14.4 Delayed Reinforcement

eligibility traces and value functions

14.5 Cognitive Maps

environment models

14.6 Habitual and Goal-directed Behavior

model-free and model-based

14.7 Summary